John Marshall

high school

Foundations of Fitness - Core Concepts of Fitness

4 Components of TotalFitness

1.     Physical

2.    Mental

3.    Emotional

4.    Social



Physical Fitness does not occur by living a sedentary lifestyle, which is sitting around or doing very little exercise, but is achieved through regular physical activity.  It helps reduce cholesterol levels, risk of heart disease, stress, and obesity; and can improve strength and joint mobility.





The ability of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems to take in and transport oxygen to the body over an extended period of time.



The range of motion through which a joint can move.



The ability of the muscles to exert forces.



The ability of the muscles to exert force over an extended period of time.



The proportion of lean body mass to fat.

Cardiovascular Endurance

When setting up a Cardiovascular Endurance program, one should use the F.I.T.T.Principle.



Frequency:  Means the recommended number of days per week.  3-6 days/week


Intensity:  Based on deter- mining your Target Heart Zone(THZ) and maintaining your heart rate within the range.


220– age = Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)


Take your MHR and multiply by 70% and 90% . This is your Target Heart Zone (THZ).



220- 25 = 195 (MHR)

     195 x .70 = 136.5

     195 x .90 = 175.5


TheTHZ is 137 – 175.


Time:  The amount of time recommended for each exercise session.  Minimum of 20minutes.


Type:  The kind of exercise you plan to implement into your fitness program.



Muscles, tendons, and ligaments are much like a rubber band. If stretched farther than it should, it can break.  Likewise, if you gradually stretch it, it will be able to stretch farther. Stretching allows muscles and ligaments to maintain this stretching ability so we can move our body parts through the entire range of motion.  When we lose our range of motion, we lose our ability to move freely or at all.  You should move into an exaggerated stretched position and hold it for 30 seconds,daily.  These are called static stretches.  You should not bounce as this may cause the muscle to tear.



Body Composition

Our body can be split into two categories.  Fat and lean body mass.  Fat is just that, FAT.  Lean body mass consists of everything else –bone, ligaments, muscle, tendons, nerves, and organs.  Fat is important in maintaining our health,but not when it’s excessive.  On average,males range from 15-20% and females from 20-25% body fat.  Everyone is born with a set number of fat cells.  This means you can’t grow more cells, but instead these cells grow in size. That’s how you get fat.  Exercise burns the stored fat in these cells like a fire burns a piece of wood.  Some people have a lot more wood to burn than others.  Reducing the size of the fat cells will build a leaner looking body.



MuscularStrength: Uses the idea of more weight with fewer repetitions.  Example: 3 sets of 5repetitions at 100 pounds on the bench.


MuscularEndurance: Uses the idea of less weight but more repetitions.  Example: 3 sets of 15repetitions at 50 pounds on the bench.


Both of these areas actually build strength of the muscle, but allow us different possibilities.  Muscular strength allows us to lift more, while muscular endurance allows us to lift more times.  When setting up a training program, one should first decide what their goal is.



We use 3 principles for training the body. The first is the Overload Principle.  This means you make the muscle do more work than it normally does.  The second is thePrinciple of Progression.  This is progressively increasing the level of exercise so that improvement in physical fitness will continue.  The third principle is the Principle of Specificity.  This means that you do specific exercises to improve specific components of physical fitness in specific body parts.



Long-termBenefits of Physical Activity

q  More efficient digestive and respiratory systems

q  Improved cholesterol and energy levels

q  Lower resting heart rate

q  Increased heart size

q  Increase in muscle tone,size, strength, and endurance


Mental/ Emotional / Social Benefits (M/E/S)

These benefits are often overlooked, but in fact are just as important as the physical benefits.  Two of the many techniques used to benefit M/E/S are through leisure activities and visualization.  A leisure activity is the time spent away from time-consuming duties and responsibilities,and visualization is the formation of desired mental images.  M/E/S benefits include:

q  Outlet for emotions

q  More optimistic

q  Relieving your body of unwanted pressures (stress reduction)

q  Increased self-confidence &self-esteem

q  Lowered anxiety levels

q  Stabilized emotions

q  Decreased feelings of helplessness, hostility and depression

q  Improved health,appearance, energy, and mental acuity




The ability to change the position of your body and to control your body during movement



The ability to keep an upright posture,while either standing still or moving



The integration of eye, hand, and foot movements



The ability to do strength performances at a rapid pace



The amount of time it takes to get moving once your senses signal the need to move



The ability to cover a distance in a short time


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